Resize a live root FS - a HOWTO

It is possible, though difficult, to resize a Linux root partition while it's still mounted. What's more, it can be done remotely, without having to be at the console. You'll need 2GB of RAM, but here is how:
  1. Stop all services other than the network and SSH, and stop SELinux interfering:
    # telinit 2
    # for SERVICE in \
    `chkconfig --list | grep 2:on | awk '{print $1}' | grep -v -e sshd -e network -e rawdevices`; \
    do service $SERVICE stop; done
    # service nfs stop
    # service rpcidmapd stop
    # setenforce 0

  2. Unmount all filesystems:
    # umount -a

  3. Create a temporary filesystem:
    # mkdir /tmp/tmproot
    # mount none /tmp/tmproot -t tmpfs
    # mkdir /tmp/tmproot/{proc,sys,usr,var,oldroot}
    # cp -ax /{bin,etc,mnt,sbin,lib} /tmp/tmproot/
    # cp -ax /usr/{bin,sbin,lib} /tmp/tmproot/usr/
    # cp -ax /var/{account,empty,lib,local,lock,nis,opt,preserve,run,spool,tmp,yp} /tmp/tmproot/var/
    # cp -a /dev /tmp/tmproot/dev
    Note that this used up about 1.6GB of ramdisk on my Red Hat Enterprise Linux (AS) 4 server.

    Also note that on 64-bit systems you will also need to copy /lib64 and /usr/lib64 as well, otherwise you will see errors like "lib64/ bad ELF interpreter: No such file or directory".

  4. Switch the filesystem root to the temporary filesystem: (NB see the "mount --make-private" note below if pivot_root fails)
    # pivot_root /tmp/tmproot/ /tmp/tmproot/oldroot
    # mount none /proc -t proc
    # mount none /sys -t sysfs (this may fail on 2.4 systems)
    # mount none /dev/pts -t devpts

  5. Restart the SSH daemon to close the old pty devices:
    # service sshd restart
    You should now try to make a new connection. If that succeeds, close your old one to release the old pty device. If it fails, get the SSH daemon properly restarted before proceeding.

  6. Close everything that's still using the old filesystem:
    # umount /oldroot/proc
    # umount /oldroot/dev/pts
    # umount /oldroot/selinux
    # umount /oldroot/sys
    # umount /oldroot/var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs
    Now try to find other things that are still holding on to the old filesystem, particularly /dev:
    # fuser -vm /oldroot/dev
    Common processes that will need killing:
    # killall udevd
    # killall gconfd-2
    # killall mingetty
    # killall minilogd
    Finally, you will need to re-execute init:
    # telinit u

  7. Unmount the old filesystem:
    # umount -l /oldroot/dev
    # umount /oldroot
    Note that we use the umount -l ("lazy") option, available only with kernels 2.4.11 and later, because /oldroot is actually mounted using an entry in /oldroot/dev, so it would be difficult if not impossible to unmount either of them otherwise.

  8. Now resize the root filesystem:
    # e2fsck -C 0 -f /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
    # resize2fs -p -f /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 8G
    # lvresize /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 -L 8G
    # resize2fs -p -f /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
    # e2fsck -C 0 -f /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
    In this example the root partition is /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 and it is being shrunk to 8GB. You don't necessarily have to run resize2fs twice, I just do in case my idea of the size differs from what lvresize thinks.

  9. We're done, so start putting everything back:
    # mount /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 /oldroot
    # pivot_root /oldroot /oldroot/tmp/tmproot
    # umount /tmp/tmproot/proc
    # mount none /proc -t proc
    # cp -ax /tmp/tmproot/dev/* /dev/
    # mount /dev/pts
    # mount /sys
    # killall mingetty
    # telinit u
    # service sshd restart
    Now make a new SSH connection, and if it works, close the old one. Note that sshd may still be running in the temporary filesystem at this point because of the way the service scripts work - check this with fuser, and if this is the case, kill the oldest sshd process and then do service sshd start. Then log in again and disconnect all other connections.

    Final steps to unmount the temporary filesystem:
    # umount -l /tmp/tmproot/dev/pts
    # umount -l /tmp/tmproot
    # rmdir /tmp/tmproot
    Now to re-mount our original filesystems and start services back up:
    # mount -a
    # umount /sys
    # mount /sys
    # for SERVICE in \
    `chkconfig --list | grep 2:on | awk '{print $1}' | grep -v -e sshd -e network -e rawdevices`; \
    do service $SERVICE start; done
    # telinit 3
    Replace 3 with your preferred runlevel. You may also want to start SELinux up again with setenforce.

The above has only been tested on RHEL AS 4, but something like it should work on most Linux variants that have pivot_root, tmpfs, and umount -l, so long as you can replace the chkconfig and service parts with whatever is appropriate for your distribution.

Update: Lucas Chan says, for CentOS 4.4, "I was not able to login after restarting sshd in step 5 until I did this: mount none /dev/pts -t devpts".

Update: Simetrical suggests that 64-bit systems also need to copy /lib64 and /usr/lib64, and that after pivot_root 2.6 kernels will also need mount none /sys -t sysfs and mount none /dev/pts -t devpts. (The above steps have been modified accordingly).

Update: nemo writes: In my case, I had some trouble because /run wasn't copied. This was a Debian squeeze, and /var/run only seems to be a symlink to /run.

Update: Noah writes: I kept receiving the error "pivot_root: failed to change root from `.' to `oldroot': Invalid argument" when running the pivot_root command. This was apparently caused because my disk was marked as shared (seems to be a new default with systemd). By running `unshare -m' before the pivot_root command, I was able to proceed without error. (Source of information:

Update: Mikle Bond writes: Hi. I was trying to follow the "Resize a live root FS - a HOWTO" guide and found one thing to add.
At the bottom notes, it says to use unshare -m to mitigate the "Invalid argument" error of pivot_root. This should be avoided.
unshare creates a new mount namespace, separate from "PID 1" namespace. Though the pivot_root command succeeds, it doesn't actually change the root mount for the rest of the system.
The solution I found is this:
mount --make-private /
mount --make-private /tmp
mount --make-private /tmp/tmproot
After this, the `pivot_root` should stop complaining.